Monday, October 19, 2015

PM Najib :- 'Malays comprised 9 main ethnic groups', 40 and 60 ethnic groups of Sabah and Sarawak natives?

Najib mentioned 9 main ethnic groups of Malays in Malaysia  - who are these 9 ethnic groups? Jawa, Bugis, Banjar, Minangkabau, Achehnese, Mamaks, Malabaris, Muslim Converts?

The Malays comprised nine main ethnic groups, Orang Asli were divided into 18 categories, Sabah Bumiputras had 40 ethnic groups while Sarawak had 60 ethnic groups.
8. During the 2010 Umno General Assembly, I mentioned that Jawa is Malay, Bugis is Malay, Banjar is also mentioned as Malay, Minangkabau is definitely Malay, those of Acheh origin are Malays, in fact, a convert is defined as Malay, even Mamak and Malbari have been absorbed as Malays.
Our Federal Constitution talks about special privileges to Malays and natives of Sabah and Sarawak... Bumiputra is not a word to be found in the Constitution, and in fact, there seem to be no definition of the term 'Bumiputra' in any law of the country. Now, it is difficult to find Malay statistics - now, what we see is Bumiputra statistics...   

Bumiputra monthly average household income had gone up from RM172 in the 1970s to RM4,457 in 2012 - but the question remains whether it is 50% of Malays plus natives of Sabah and Sarawak households enjoy monthly household income of RM4,457 - which naturally means that they will not qualify for BR1M, being financial assistance now provided by the government for those with household incomes less than RM4,000. [ See also:- RM4,585 - median monthly household income for Malaysians in 2014? 4.5 million households entitled to BR1M?

He uses the word 'average', and does not indicate the number of households that enjoy household monthly income above RM4,000. If a few Malays, natives of Sabah and Sarawak are earning monthly incomes of more than RM100,000, that would mean what? What percentage of Malay, Sabah and Sarawak natives earn household incomes more than RM4,000 a month - 40%, 25% or even lesser.

It would have been better too if we knew how many households are in the different ethnic Malay, Sabah and Sarawak native households - and how much is the monthly income of these different families. Why is this important? Maybe all the high income households are Malay Bugis households, hence the other ethnic community households are really earning far less? This would be inequitable distributions between the different 109 ethnic Malay, Sabahan and Sarawakian households - and this would not be right or the intention of the special privilege or preferences accorded in the Federal Constitution - and the BN government would have failed to do what it intended since 1957 - that is after about 58 years. 

The lumping together of the many different ethnic groups into a single 'Bumiputra' grouping allows for discrimination and differential treatment of the various different ethnic groups that deserves special treatment.

A detailed report card is needed for the effective evaluation of whether all in this 'Bumiputra' class has been benefiting. It is disturbing also when we see that some kin of the political leadership are emerging as very rich persons in Malaysia...

One also wonders whether the BN's attempt to include new categories into the group of 'special treatment entitlement' may be a deviation of the original objective to focus merely on the Malay and natives of Sabah and Sarawak.

According to Najib's speech - new persons are being absorbed into this 'Bumiputra' category, and this includes the Mamak, Malabari and 'converts' to Islam. Is this going against the intention of the Federal Constitution?

We need detailed statistics of the people of Malaysia:- the number of persons in the all the different 9 Malay ethnic groups, 40 Sabahan native ethnic groups, 60 Sarawakan ethnic groups. 

Given the definition of Malay - it will also be important for us to know the number of 'new' Malays, that is those that satisfy the definition not being children of existing Malays, that have been recognized as Malays since 1957.

In my opinion, it makes little sense continuing to assist the already rich to become richer - but the target of the government should be to enrich the still poor and marginalized persons and households. 

Making a millionaire Malay into a billionaire, does not in the real world translate in the enrichment of the poor Malays > It is not that these people that now are so rich, some by reason of the preferential treatment, do not in the end of the day share their wealth with the poor, or do they?
The BR1M (1Malaysia People's Aid) programme has admitted that households earning RM3,000 or less require direct financial assistance. (Say, that a household is made up of an average of 4 persons, that means the number who were assisted in 2013 is 4.8mil X 4 =  19.2 million)

Bachelors earning less than RM2,000 monthly that were assisted was 2 million.- 21 million poor Malaysians in need of government financial aid? Poverty line income should be increased to RM3,000 in line with BR1M
That was in 2013, what were the figures in 2015? Now, assistance is being given to households earning RM4,000 or less. Note, if the beneficiaries have increased, it is proof that this BN government has failed. How many Malay and Sabahan and Sarawakian native households received BR1M - that would be indicative of the wealth distribution amongst the Malay and Sabahan and Sarawakian native households.

BR1M today is not an entitlement - not a right in law - but a 'discretionary' hand out by the BN government under Najib. I say make it a right in law - entitling people with incomes less than a certain figure, the right to get welfare aid monthly. 

BR1M is also an unjust mechanism to alleviate poverty - the poorer person should rightly be provided more.... not the same value of assistance to all whose household income less than RM2,999. Unjust BR1M - the poorer must receive more assistance...the richer households lesser 

Today, so many Malaysian workers are also out of work.... (and Malaysia continues bringing in foreign workers)... Malaysia may be facing financial difficulties - but really, what is the state of financial well-being of the Malaysian families. Give us numbers - not 'averages' or 'medians' - but actual numbers. 

September 14, 2013 MYT 11:26:39 PM

Full text of PM's speech at the Bumiputera economic empowerment programmes launch

Prime Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak.
Prime Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak.
SHAH ALAM: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak announced new Bumiputera economic empowerment programmes at Universiti Teknologi Mara here on Saturday.
Here is the full text of his speech.
Bismillahirrahmannirrahim Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh and peace be upon you.
1. God willing, thanks to Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala because with his consent we are gathered this morning, at Dewan Agong Tuanku Canselor of Universiti Teknologi Mara's Main Campus, an institution which symbolises and is a symbolism of the relentless struggle of the Malays and Bumiputera.
2. First of all, on behalf of the government, I record the highest appreciation to the people of Malaysia especially the Malay and Bumiputra comunities who had supported, given their mandate and trust to Barisan Nasional at the 13th General continue the leadership of the nation. What is more overwhelming is, Umno as the mainstay of Barisan Nasional, had been able to increase its parliamentary seat from 79 to 88.
3. This proved, regardless of the obstacle, despite the accusations, the Umno Transformation Leadership, with the other Barisan National component parties continued to be strong, continued to be firm and continued to endure efficaciously, as the pick of the people, for the next five years pursue the agenda of the Malays and Bumiputera in our beloved homeland.
4. After the last General Election was concluded, we heard numerous grumblings, countless laments and dissatisfaction, raised by the Bumiputra communities, on their lot, future and direction, with their children and grandchildren in the land of our birth.
5. Indeed, we heard your cries, ladies and gentlemen. We too, immerse ourselves in your pulses and restlessness. Yes, indeed! We hear you. We hear you loud and clear.
6. Since the nation became independent, on Aug 31, 1957, the people had lived in harmony, united, building the nation. On Sept 16, 1963, Sabah and Sarawak merged with us to form Malaysia. Thankfully, the unification, brought us a million blessings. Day after tomorrow, with the grace of god too, we will celebrate the completion of fifty years, Malaysia's golden jubilee celebration, which, god willing, I will be attending in the cities of Kuching and Kota Kinabalu.
7. To celebrate the population of the nation, there were 6.1 million Bumiputras in 1970, or 56% of the populace. The Malays comprised nine main ethnic groups, Orang Asli were divided into 18 categories, Sabah Bumiputras had 40 ethnic groups while Sarawak had 60 ethnic groups.
8. During the 2010 Umno General Assembly, I mentioned that Jawa is Malay, Bugis is Malay, Banjar is also mentioned as Malay, Minangkabau is definitely Malay, those of Acheh origin are Malays, in fact, a convert is defined as Malay, even Mamak and Malbari have been absorbed as Malays.
9. The 2010 Population and Housing Census, showed Malays and Muslim Bumiputras made up 59.7%. While non-Muslim Bumiputras were 7.6% of the overall populace. Current projections, as of 2012, estimated the population of Malaysia as 27.4 million people of whom Bumiputras numbered 18.6 million or 67.9%.
10. Since Independence, all the Malay and Bumiputra plannings and economic policies by the Government had been enacted based on the calculations founded on the composition of the plural communities. In principle, this had been adopted as a social contract since a long time ago by the people of Malaysia, as agreed to by the founding fathers of our nation, protected and articulated in the Federal Constitution through Article 153, Article 160 (2), Article 161A (6)(a). Also Article 161A (6)(b).
11. Therefore, the Malays and Bumiputras as the core of the national agenda could not be denied by anybody. Indeed, any matter which is national in nature, which does not take into account or neglect the agenda of the Malays and Bumiputras is not fair and just.
12. It is important that this must be thoroughly understood by all quarters that we must always be aware and be careful about the Bumiputra Agenda being the National Agenda. This is because if the majority Bumiputra group is not looked after or felt themselves threatened and sidelined, the country may not achieve peace, stability, and we may not achieve our dream of becoming a developed nation which is peaceful and prosperous as aspired in 2020.
13. Thereupon, history has proven in the development of the national economy especially since the New Economic Policy was implemented, not only Malay and Bumiputra, in fact, all Malaysians shared the bounty from god, reaping the benefit together, the result of the national economic development. Clearly, this we had done without taking, or depriving anybody's right but rightly through the creation of new wealth and generating strong economic growth.
14. The chronicles of the world had shown how if a government failed to play its pro-active part in balancing the socio-economy fairly, between the haves and have-nots, between capitalists and workers, between land owners and tenants, between white collar workers and blue collar workers, it would be and is the harbinger of catastrophes.
15. In retrospect, the New Economic Policy, namely, NEP had been introduced in 1971 by the late Tun Abdul Razak, my father, to tackle the issue of inter-ethnic socio-economic imbalances and poverty eradication following the May 13, 1969 tragedy.
16. That's how the New Economic Policy was implemented between 1971 and 1990. Since 1965 until 2010, 10 Malaysia plans and three Long Term Plans had been implemented.
17. The National Development Plan was between 1991 and 2000. Later, there was the National Vision Policy traversing 2001 to 2010. In the meantime, I also launched the National Transformation Policy, during the tabling of Budget 2010, as the axial reinforcement and a catalyst for achieving Vision 2020.
18. Since independence, the government had created numerous instruments and institutions for the Malays and Bumiputras, among which were Bank Bumiputera, Tabung Haji, Mara, Felda, Risda, Felcra, Uda, Pernas, Dara, Jengka, Kerengah and Kesedar. The third Prime Minister, Tun Hussein Onn on his part, had set up Permodalan Nasional Berhad and launched Skim Amanah Saham Nasional.
19. As we also know, the interest of Bumiputra had been further strengthened by the fourth Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir through the privatisation policy and Vision 2020, which became the current track on which the nation is progressing. The fifth Prime Minister, Tun Abdullah had created corridors to boost regional economic development.
20. Since I took over the administration of the nation, the government had launched the New Economic Models, which aspired to turn Malaysia into a developed, high-income nation, with balanced growth, witnessing the Malay and Bumiputra communities on par with other communities with the advent of a developed nation status in seven years.
21. Furthermore, the New Economic Model introduces an inclusive development approach based on growth with equity to ensure all communities in Malaysia obtain benefit from economic development and the nation's riches.
22. Meanwhile, the 10th Malaysia Plan, starting from 2011 to 2015, is aimed at providing fair opportunities to all Malaysians, regardless of ethnic groups or geographical position, to be together involved in all economic activities. This is based on the principle of friendly market, based on need, transparency and merit. But the meritocracy here meant competition among Bumiputra.
23. The government had also introduced the Government Transformation Programme and Economic Transformation Programme to form a national economic development ecosystem which is strong and resilient. Due to the implementation of the transformation programme, the national economic growth had recorded a strong growth in an uncertain global economy. In 2011 and 2012, the rate of growth of the national economy was 5.1 and 5.6 respectively.
24. What I want to stress here, that is, continuous growth such as this is crucial, because, firstly, only with growth can we distribute the riches of the nation to all Malaysians.
25. Through a careful and wise economic planning, the standard of living of Bumiputra have gone up. For example, the Bumiputra monthly average household income had gone up from RM172 in the 1970s to RM4,457 in 2012 or almost 2,500% in 42 years.
26. The Bumiputra poverty rate had gone down from 64.8% in the 1970s to 2.2% in 2012. The Bumiputra corporate company equity rate had also gone up from only 2.4% in the 1970s to 23.5% in 2011. 27. Furthermore, except for several specific employment sectors, the number of Bumiputra employed in the professional category, especially those qualified as medical doctors, engineers and lawyers had approached the percentages of the racial composition.
28. This proved the New Economic Policy, as a preliminary measure had been successful in tackling the gap between the communities in the effort to develop the socio-economy of the Bumiputra community. Clearly, during the last four decades, the Bumiputra community had entered the first phase of the transformation.
29. Nevertheless, the government is aware that there still exists the disparity in income between the ethnic groups. For example, in 2011, the average monthly income of the Chinese was higher than Bumiputra by a ratio of 1:43.
30. In the context of corporate company equity ownership, we have yet to achieve a target of at least 30%. Our effective control on corporate companies currently is only around 10%. The government also understands that the involvement of the Bumiputra communities in entrepreneurship activities is still insignificant and the majority is at the small and micro levels.
31. As such, ladies and gentlemen, on the support given by Malays and Bumiputra at the 13th General Election recently, today the government decides to make a big shift to implement concrete and total strategies and approaches.
32. This meaningful and historical meeting, we name the Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Council. All these, we undertake, to look after the lot of the Malay and Bumiputra communities, since the past, presently and forever. The Empowerment of the Bumiputera Economy focuses on five major strategies.
The Focus of the First Empowerment: ENABLE BUMIPUTRA HUMAN CAPITAL
33. As we understand, human capital is the most important aspect in developing a community. The government, in truth, had been successful in emplacing Bumiputra students in local and foreign public institutions of higher learning. As such, the next phase is to empower the Bumiputra human capital leading towards matching qualifications and skills with the needs of the market.
34. Towards this end, firstly, for youths with low academic qualifications and skill levels, the government had increased skills boosting programmes to provide a second chance so they would have more opportunities to get employment.
35. In this aspect too, re-skilling programmes are escalated. Towards this end, additional allocations would be given to GiatMara to procure the latest high technology equipment to carry out training programmes. Meanwhile, the number of training programmes handled by National Youth Skills Institute would also be increased by adopting the two shifts approach.
36. Secondly, to the unemployed Bumiputra graduates, the government will intensify training programmes to boost their marketability, to suit the need of the industry. For this purpose, programmes such as 1Malaysia Training Scheme, Graduate Employability Management Scheme and Skills Steering Programme would be expanded to boost the number of beneficiaries.
37. Thirdly, to boost the number of highly qualified individuals, the related agencies such as the Public Service Department and Mara would expand Post Degree Education Programmes to meet the need of the market especially in critical and high technology sectors. 38. Fourthly, in turning out more Bumiputra professionals, Professional Leadership Programmes under the Bumiputera Education Steering Foundation (YPPB) and similar programmes would be expanded. This will help them obtain recognition as professional and accredited manpower, especially in critical areas such as accountancy, specialist doctors, architecture, engineering and actuarial science.
39. To date, the maximum limit for each individual in Amanah Saham Bumiputera investment is RM200,000. As such, to encourage participation, especially among the middle Bumiputra group in owning shares, I proudly announce the Skim Amanah Saham Bumiputera 2 or ASB2 would be launched by Permodalan Nasional Berhad with an injection of 10 billion units of shares.
40. Equinas, on its part, will be given the responsibility of taking over the role of spearheading the Skim Jejak Jaya Bumiputera programme. The programme would be transformed through management equity and skill, to guide Bumiputra companies for listing on Bursa Malaysia.
41. Bumiputra are still lagging in non-financial asset ownership such as houses, industrial premises and commercial complexes. For example, in 2012, the transaction of residential homes recorded by the National Property Information Centre, indicated only 36.3% of transactions of residential homes involving Bumiputra with a value of almost RM18 billion or 26%.
42. From another angle, many non-financial assets such as property among Muslim Bumiputra, which were not managed in an orderly manner or neglected had caused the value of the assets to become low. As such, to optimise the value and benefit of the assets, for starters, Malaysian Wakaf Foundation would be spruced up and upgraded into a corporate entity.
43. The roles of property institutions such as Pelaburan Hartanah Berhad, Majlis Amanah Rakyat and Perbadanan Usahawan Nasional Berhad would be empowered to develop or obtain commercial and industrial property especially at strategic locations nationwide.
44. In addition, the government is aware the capability of the Bumiputra communities to own homes is low on top of the increasing prices of houses. Towards empowering property ownership, to generate Bumiputra wealth, the government through Syarikat Perumahan Rakyat 1Malaysia or PR1MA and Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad with the cooperation of the state governments would increase the number of affordable homes for Bumiputras nationwide.
45. Meanwhile, according to statistics, 58% of the 72% Malaysians staying in the urban areas are Bumiputra. But, the government knows, the percentage of Bumiputera property ownership in town is low. So, without government intervention to correct the situation, the Bumiputera property ownership is becoming worse.
46. As such, the role of UDA Corporation would be strengthened to help the development of property including homes, complexes and trading spaces, industrial and commercial buildings in urban areas.
47. In connection with this too, I will direct GLCs and GLICs which are involved in the property sector to stress on the development of Bumiputra property especially housing, shoplots and commercial premises.
48. As we all know, commerce and entrepreneurship are the most important activities to generate income and riches. However, the participation of BumiputraS in such activities is low because of several constraints faced including outdated production technology, lack of access to funds and capital and limited markets.
49. In overcoming the issue of access to financing funds for small and medium entrepreneurs, the roles of Bumiputra entrepreneur agencies such as Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia, Tekun Nasional, Mara and PUNB would be strengthened so that the number of Bumiputra entrepreneur recipients would increase, including in Sabah and Sarawak.
50. In this regard, I am happy to announce, an additional allocation of RM300 million for Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia for five years. The number of friends of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia, the majority of whom are women, is targeted to rise from 350,000 people to 500,000 people in 2015.
51. At this opportunity too, I announce an additional allocation of RM700 million for Tekun Nasional. The number of Tekun entrepreneurs is also expected to go up from 270,000 this year to 370,000 in 2015.
52. In response to the laments of entreprenuers who were encountering problems of market access, I will direct all ministries and GLC to strengthen their Bumiputra vendor development systems. The selection of vendors must be based on merit among Bumiputras. In this manner, Bumiputra entrepreneurs could be capable of becoming strong and progressive.
53. In line with this, I also want the vendor contract and concession periods to be syncronised with the bank loan repayment periods so their projects could run smoothly.
54. In connection with empowering the Vendor Development Programme or VDP, Petronas must boost its VDP programme, to strengthen its supply chain for the oil and gas sectors. The same goes for Tenaga Nasional in the energy sector, Telekom Malaysia and Axiata in the communication sector, UEM in construction while Sime Darby and Felda Global Ventures for the plantation sector.
55. With the empowerment of the Bumiputra economy too, I want all Chief Executive Officers in GLCs to fix targets on the participation of Bumiputra including acquisitions awarded to vendors. This should be included in the Key Peformance Index for the Chief Executive Officers of the respective companies.
56. In this regard, I am happy to share that in the oil and gas sector between now and 2017, Petronas is implementing and will carry out several main upstream and downstream projects. Through these projects, we have worked out so that Bumiputra companies would benefit from contracts worth RM20 billion each year for upstream and downstream service work.
57. The shelf life of such facilities are usually about 25 years or more. It is estimated at least 22 critical work scopes would be created to benefit Bumiputra companies.
58. To tackle the issue of supply chain, the government through GLC and GLIC would develop a group of Bumiputra entrepreneurs who would involve themselves in activities related to manufacturing and industrialisation which have potentials and higher value-added. In this context, GLC and GLIC would helm effort to create several Bumiputra consortiums in the sectors involved.
59. The privatisation programme, generally, had succeeded in becoming catalysts to create successful Bumiputra individuals and companies. As such, to escalate the programme, the Private Public Cooperation Unit or Ukas will take the initiative to identify selectively any viable government service to be privatised to Bumiputra.
60. In a move to ensure opportunities for Bumiputra companies to obtain contracts and in preparation to compete in the future, the carve out policy would be expanded to other big projects under the ministry, GLCs and GLICs. This policy was successfully carried out in the MRT projects where 47% or nine billion ringgit were awarded to Bumiputra companies selected on meritocracy.
61. For example, four additional projects which had been identified to take part in the programme are Merdeka Heritage Tower Project, Bukit Bintang City Centre, Matade Exhibition Centre and the Sungai Buluh Rubber Research Institute Development programme.
62. In furtherance of the agenda, it is appropriate that we build a New Bumiputra Entrepreneur Community that is resilient, competitive, innovative and daring to take risks. They also must have a deep interest and are passionate about participating in new knowledge-based fields such as information technology, biotechnology and green technology.
63. Towards this aim, a new and unique financing scheme named Bumiputra New Entrepreneurs Starting Scheme, or Superb, would be introduced. The scheme is aimed at aiding start-up companies. For this purpose, an allocation of RM100 million would be provided in a three-year period.
64. Superb will provide grants up to RM500,000 to creative and innovative new entrepreneurs in strategic sectors which had big potentials in the future.
65. The selection of Bumiputra entrepreneurs would be based on merit and would be done by a panel of entrepreneurs who are already successful. Furthermore, new entrepreneurs who were picked would also be mentored by those who were already successful.
66. As I have mentioned, the government hears the expressions of feelings emanating from the Bumiputra communities on their level of participation in socio-economic development programmes. As such, to ensure the socio-economic development of Bumiputra were effectively implemented, the delivery system would be streamlined and compacted to create an efficient, comprehensive and constructive ecosystem.
67. For this, Bumiputra Development Units or UPB would be created in all ministries. The Bumiputra Development Unit is responsible for formulating suggestions and implementing Bumiputra Agenda initiatives.
Ladies and gentlemen,
68. Appreciating the interest and struggles of Bumiputra, I wish to quote seven wills by the Nine Malay Rulers when consenting to the independence agreement to set up a federation.
Truly: "We declare and we keep for you and we allow you to declare and keep for your children and grandchildren, other than the mountains, lakes and forest reserves, Malay Reserve land up to a ratio of 50%, the rest you, together with the other communities, may grab".
69. This will is very clear. It has stated the equity and the ownership of the Malays and later expanded to Bumiputra, through the unification of Sabah and Sarawak when Malaysia was set up 50 years ago.
70. Nevertheless, on behalf of the Government and from the bottom of my heart, I would like to urge all quarters, not to misconstrue the Bumiputera economic empowerment measures. We will implement all these initiatives and strategies without trampling on the interests of other groups or deny their rights.
71. Certainly! We are doing what is fair, we are doing what is right, and we are doing what is equitable. It means we do not have any intention or prejudice against other races.

72. As such, what is in my heart and the government's aspiration is a noble intention to continue creating new wealth, so that all people of Malaysia can share the benefits in a fair and just manner.

73. In fact, the peace and harmony between our people has enabled us to be ranked 20th among the most stable and peaceful countries in the world. That is how special and unique Malaysia is.

74. The main point I want to emphasise here is that we are a wise and responsible government for the people from all walks of life, regardless of their background, Bumiputera or non-Bumiputera, Muslims or non-Muslims.

75. We are nothing like certain politicians who continue fanning racial fires to the extent of scaring and confusing the people's mind.

76. Like it or not, if we are not careful and let ourselves be influenced by foreign sentiments, through these masterminds and enemy within, we will suffer the consequences. If we leave it unaddressed, Malaysia, as an independent and sovereign state, will perish. God forbid.

77. As I said earlier, we are gathered here with a mission, not for fun. As the UiTM's slogan says 'UiTM dihatiku' (UiTM in my heart)... it means that the Universiti Teknologi Mara is very close to our hearts, as a most prominent Bumiputera institution.

78. In fact, I can vividly remember the time when I delivered a speech as Umno deputy president at the party's general assembly in 2005. I called for the UiTM's student enrolment to be increased from 100,000 to 200,000 by 2015. Now, all praise be to Allah, the number has reached 180,000.

79. Today, I want to announce the target to see further increase in the number of UiTM's student enrolment to 250,000 by 2020. Plans are also afoot to open several new UiTM branch campuses nationwide.

80. For Malays, for Bumiputera, I want to announce the setting up of a RM1 billion Mara Education Fund to meet financial requirements for training programmes, education, entrepreneurship, research and development and innovation. The fund will be channelled in stages in the form of a 'matching fund' with a one-to-one ratio between the government and MARA.

81.We also realise that the Bumiputera community has high hopes on Teraju to lead the Bumiputera development agenda. Now, to make Terajua more distinguished body, it will be put directly under my supervision as the Prime Minister, and that it will be led by....

82. In achieving our aspiration to establish a Bumiputera Entrepreneur Community, I would also like to announce that the National Entrepreneurship Institute or Insken will be put under Teraju's supervision, so is the Bumiputera New Entrepreneurs Start-Up Scheme or Superb which I had announced earlier.

83. As the umbrella body and the peak strategy for the empowerment of the Bumiputera Economy, a council, to be called the Bumiputera Economic Council (MEB) will be set up to replace the Bumiputera Agenda Action Council (MTAB). The MEB will be chaired by myself and its deputy chairman will be the Deputy Prime Minister with members comprising the relevant ministers. The membership is compact where various representatives from non-governmental organisations and relevant agencies will be invited. The important council will meet at least once a month or more.

84. So, with the Bumiputera Economic Council as the pillar for the Malays and Bumiputera, there is no need to worry because as long as there is the moon and the stars, for as long as we shall live, the survival of the Malays and Bumiputera will remain a priority and light of our struggle.

85. Finally, I pledge that I will continue to empower the Malay and Bumiputera economy. God willing, all these will be achieved.

Hidup melayu, Hidup Bumiputera, Hidup Malaysia.

Wabillahitaufik Walhidayah Wassalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh. Thank you. - Star, 14/9/2013, Full text of PM's speech at the Bumiputera economic empowerment programmes launch

Art 160 Federal Constitution - Interpretation of  MALAY 
means a person who professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay custom and -
(a) was before Merdeka Day born in the Federation or in Singapore or born of parents one of whom was born in the Federation or in Singapore, or is on that day domiciled in the Federation or in Singapore; or
(b) is the issue of such a person;

Article 153  Reservation of quotas in respect of services, permits, etc., for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak. (Malaysian Federal Constitution)

(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, but subject to the provisions of Article 40 and of this Article, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall exercise his functions under this Constitution and federal law in such manner as may be necessary to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak of such proportion as he may deem reasonable of positions in the public service (other than the public service of a State) and of scholarships, exhibitions and other similar educational or training privileges or special facilities given or accorded by the Federal Government and, when any permit or licence for the operation of any trade or business is required by federal law, then, subject to the provisions of that law and this Article, of such permits and licences.

(3) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may, in order to ensure in accordance with Clause (2) the reservation to Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak of positions in the public service and of scholarships, exhibitions and other educational or training privileges or special facilities, give such general directions as may be required for that purpose to any Commission to which Part X applies or to any authority charged with responsibility for the grant of such scholarships, exhibitions or other educational or training privileges or special facilities; and the Commission or authority shall duly comply with the directions.

(4) In exercising his functions under this Constitution and federal law in accordance with Clauses (1) to (3) the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall not deprive any person of any public office held by him or of the continuance of any scholarship, exhibition or other educational or training privileges or special facilities enjoyed by him.

(5) This Article does not derogate from the provisions of Article 136.

(6) Where by existing federal law a permit or licence is required for the operation of any trade or business the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may exercise his functions under that law in such manner, or give such general directions to any authority charged under that law with the grant of such permits or licences, as may be required to ensure the reservation of such proportion of such permits or licences for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may deem reasonable; and the authority shall duly comply with the directions.

(7) Nothing in this Article shall operate to deprive or authorise the deprivation of any person of any right, privilege, permit or licence accrued to or enjoyed or held by him or to authorise a refusal to renew to any person any such permit or licence or a refusal to grant to the heirs, successors or assigns of a person any permit or licence when the renewal or grant might reasonably be expected in the ordinary course of events.

(8) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, where by any federal law any permit or licence is required for the operation of any trade or business, that law may provide for the reservation of a proportion of such permits or licences for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak; but no such law shall for the purpose of ensuring such a reservation -
(a) deprive or authorise the deprivation of any person of any right, privilege, permit or licence accrued to or enjoyed or held by him; or

(b) authorise a refusal to renew to any person any such permit or licence or a refusal to grant to the heirs, successors or assigns of any person any permit or licence when the renewal or grant might in accordance with the other provisions of the law reasonably be expected in the ordinary course of events, or prevent any person from transferring together with his business any transferable licence to operate that business; or

(c) where no permit or licence was previously required for the operation of the trade or business, authorise a refusal to grant a permit or licence to any person for the operation of any trade or business which immediately before the coming into force of the law he had been bona fide carrying on, or authorise a refusal subsequently to renew to any such person any permit or licence, or a refusal to grant to the heirs, successors or assigns of any such person any such permit or licence when the renewal or grant might in accordance with the other provisions of that law reasonably be expected in the ordinary course of events.
(8A) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, where in any University, College and other educational institution providing education after Malaysian Certificate of Education or its equivalent, the number of places offered by the authority responsible for the management of the University, College or such educational institution to candidates for any course of study is less than the number of candidates qualified for such places, it shall be lawful for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong by virtue of this Article to give such directions to the authority as may be required to ensure the reservation of such proportion of such places for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may deem reasonable; and the authority shall duly comply with the directions.

(9) Nothing in this Article shall empower Parliament to restrict business or trade solely for the purpose of reservations for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak.

(9A) In this Article the expression "natives" in relation to the State of Sabah or Sarawak shall have the meaning assigned to it in Article 161A.

(10) The Constitution of the State of any Ruler may make provision corresponding (with the necessary modifications) to the provisions of this Article.

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